glossary of shipping terms

0000244260 00000 n Taxes collected on importing and exporting goods. The relative use that companies make of transportation modes; the statistics include ton-miles, passenger-miles, and revenue. The seller delivers the goods to the carrier or another person nominated by the seller at an agreed place (if any such site is agreed between parties). See FPPI and USPPI. FEU is a measure of a ship's cargo-carrying capacity. Goods in active pick locations and ready for order filling. The seller on the Bill of Exchange document. The temperature of a substance surrounding a body. An agent appointed by an airline to solicit and process international airfreight shipments. Ex works is when the seller places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the seller’s premises or at another named place (i.e., works, factory, warehouse, etc.). Goods delivered alongside are placed on the dock or barge within reach of the ship’s rigging so it can be easily loaded onto the ship. This ocean freight term refers to containerized cargo that is equivalent to either one forty foot container or two twenty foot containers. A U.S. agency within the executive branch which oversees transportation in the U.S. A letter of credit requires that payment be made on the basis of the presentation of documents to a lender conveying the title and indicating that specific steps have been taken. The ultimate consignee is the person located abroad who is the true party in interest, receiving the export for the designated end-use. This includes sets of documents such as Bill of Lading, Commercial Invoice, Packing List and any other required documentation. An enterprise engaged in the business of transporting goods. Unit Load Device, Any type of container, container with integral pallet, aircraft container or aircraft pallet. It is attached to the Victualling Bill by the Customs officer who clears the vessel, and is then known as Outward Clearance. 0000244182 00000 n 0000000016 00000 n A document issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture which certifies that a shipment has been inspected and is free from harmful pests and plant diseases. Cars completely unassembled and packed into cases. The initial port of entry where a vessel transporting goods first arrives at a country. For road transportation, a platform from which trucks are loaded and unloaded. 0000004261 00000 n A reciprocal trading agreement that includes a variety of transactions involving two or more parties. A document issued by the seller, addressed to the buyer, giving details of the individual transaction, including a complete description of the goods, prices, currency, delivery and payment terms and so on. UK HMRC Open Individual Export Licences (OIELs) are one type of export licence. Expenses incurred by the shipowner in connection with running a ship. A shipper may pay a premium rate in order to obtain exclusive use of a trailer. A bill of lading indicating that the goods were received by the carrier in good order and condition, without any clauses declaring a defective condition in the goods and/or their packing. A product may be considered a dangerous good if it is corrosive, flammable, poisonous, toxic, explosive, etc. The sharing of an insurance risk between two or more parties, other than a contract of reinsurance. An agreement whereby the charterer takes over control costs and responsibilities of the vessel for an agreed period. The weight of packaging or a container without the goods. The terms in this glossary have been carefully selected from the myriad of terms one can encounter in the shipping business. The International Traffic in Arms Regulations regulate the export of space- or defense-related products and are enforced by the U.S. Department of State. Refers to the side of a ship. Goods classified FAK are usually charged higher rates than those marked with a specific classification and are frequently in a container which includes various classes of cargo. The foreign distributor generally provides support and service for the product, relieving the exporter of these responsibilities. Download. Origin can mean the location where a shipment starts its journey, or the country where the goods were originally manufactured. The Automated Commercial Environment is the online web portal used to report data to the Automated Export System (AES) for exports leaving the United States, and also for customs filing for imports entering the United States. Vessel designed to carry containers only and no other cargo. The price of one currency in the terms of another. Signed statement from a manufacturer attesting that a product meets certain technical standards. An alert that an MRP or DRP system generates to inform the controller of a situation requiring his or her attention. The transfer of rights, duties, responsibilities, and benefits of an agreement, contract, or financial instrument to a third party. Means the carriage of goods by at least two different modes of transport, from a place at which the goods are taken in charge situated in one country to a place designated for delivery situated in a different country. An act committed by the master or mariners of a vessel, for some unlawful or fraudulent purpose, contrary to their duty to the owners, whereby the latter sustain injury. A document issued by a bank acting as a guarantor for their customer. A logistics company is a general term for a company that provides logistics services, which may include freight forwarding, customs brokerage, and/or consulting services. An FEU equals two TEUs. Contractual arrangement in which the licenser’s patents, trademarks, service marks, copyrights, trade secrets, or other intellectual property may be sold or made available to a licensee for compensation that is negotiated in advance between the parties. A method of payment for goods where cash is paid at the time of order, and the transaction becomes binding on both buyer and seller. D/P. Holding sheds, next to shipping berths, where goods are held prior to or after loading. A notional or calculated weight for bulky goods sent by air. Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List (SDN) Human Readable Lists. It specifies a date on which payment is due, rather than a time period as with the time draft. SASO. Generally stated as 6000cm3 = 1 kg, meaning that the total volume in cubic centimetres is divided by 6000 to give an equivalent weight in kgs. A person who officially estimates the value of goods for the purpose of apportioning the sum payable in the settlement of claims. The placing of goods in a ship in such a way as to ensure the safety and stability of the ship not only on a sea or ocean passage but also in between ports when parts of the cargo have been loaded or discharged. The risk of loss of or damage to the goods passes when the products are alongside the ship. Often this first company does not produce all of the products it is under contract to provide, and it turns to other U.S. companies to provide the remaining products. A draft on a shipowner for wages, given to a seaman on signing Articles of Agreement and redeemable after the ship has sailed with the seaman on board. Free In/Out and Trimmed: As per FIOS but includes FIOT trimming, e.g. If goods which have been imported, and upon which customs duty has been paid, are exported or have been used in the manufacture of goods which have been exported, then the exporter may be entitled to a refund of the original import duty paid. The initial opening of hatches on entering port and the commencement of discharge of cargo. The Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (or Harmonized System, HS) is a system for classifying goods in international trade, developed under the auspices of the Customs Cooperation Council. A standardized classification system for commodities transported via LTL carrier. A carrier's system of recording movement intervals of shipments from origins to destinations. 0000008016 00000 n Items that fall under the jurisdiction of the EAR but are not found on the Commerce Control List (CCL). CABOTAGE The carriage of goods or passengers for remuneration taken on at one point and discharged at another point within the territory of the same country. The period of time allowed for the removal or accumulation of cargo before charges become applicable. Equipped with large openings at bow and stern and sometimes also in the side, the ship permits rapid loading and discharge with hydraulically operated ramps providing easy access. The issuer will require the holder to give them security by way of a bank guarantee. These terms are commonly known as Incoterms. Document used when the exporter extends credit to the buyer. Remarketers then sell these products overseas through their contacts in their own names and assume all risks. Since they usually handle thousands of small parcels an hour, they are less expensive and offer more diverse services than regular carriers. Any article exchanged in trade, most commonly used to refer to raw materials and agricultural products. 0000244610 00000 n Help Center. It is charged with regulating and facilitating international trade, collecting import duties, and enforcing U.S. regulations, including trade, customs, and immigration. In a time charter, the owner is entitled to a limited time for his vessel to be off hire until such time as the vessel may be repaired or dry-docked. Warehousing is the storage of cargo. A term used in marine transportation, referring to the time it takes between the arrival of a ship and its departure. 0000009290 00000 n Arrangement in which one manufacturer or service company distributes a second company’s product or service. The seller bears all the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods to the place of destination. Delivery of merchandise to the buyer or distributor, whereby the latter agrees to sell it and only then pay the U.S. exporter. A letter of credit may be either irrevocable, in which case it cannot be changed unless both parties agree, or revocable, in which case either party may unilaterally make changes. A short summary of this paper. The quantity of goods that may be imported without restrictions over a set period of time. When used in foreign trade, a commercial invoice is a customs document. It is for use in reservations, timetables, tickets, tariffs as well as air waybill . A restriction placed on an operation in order to protect public health and safety. An exception is usually related to shortage or damage of goods. Ocean carriers will prepare a manifest will prepare a manifest per container, etc. Shipping Terms and Shipping Abbreviations The International shipping and marine transport industry is full of unique shipping terms and shipping abbreviations. Disclaimer This information is disseminated under the sponsorship of the U. S. Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. Definitions for an alphabetical listing of frequently searched logistics and supply chain terms ranging from parcels, ocean and air freight, global freight forwarding, customs clearance and many others. B. An occurrence where two or more products are combined into one transaction for a single price. A separate refrigeration unit which can be clipped on to an insulated container. Advance Commercial Information (ACI) Equipment such as rigging or cranes used on a ship for loading or unloading cargo. A part of the ongoing Export Control Reform is the licence exception Strategic Trade Authorization (STA). A quotation from a carrier or forwarder covering the cost of transport between two specified locations. An Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) is an alphanumeric designation (i.e., 1A984 or 4A001) used in the Commerce Control List to identify items for export control purposes. Document used when the exporter wishes to retain title to the shipment until it reaches its destination and payment is made. One who carries any type of goods, other than a carrier of special goods. 2) The owner is irretrievably deprived of the property. The EOR must be a registered entity in the receiving country. Merchandise may be stored, displayed, used for manufacturing, etc., within the zone and re-exported without duties. A term relating to return of premiums on a hull policy. Total weight of a container, i.e. A document listing details regarding the crew and cargo onboard a vessel. Loading cargo close together to minimize movement of goods while in transit. submitted to a buyer for the purpose of receiving payment for a shipment. Empty space in a container not occupied by cargo. New to the logistics industry? The forwarder takes care of all documentation needed to move the shipment from origin to destination, making up and assembling the necessary documentation for submission to the bank in the exporter's name. 0000004887 00000 n The pledge of a ship, or of her cargo, as security for repayment of money advanced to the master in an emergency, and of no avail if the ship be lost. Proof Of Delivery, or a cargo/package receipt with the signature of recipient. “Knowing” includes the concepts of “conscious disregard” and “willful blindness.” The FCPA also covers foreign persons or companies that commit acts in furtherance of such bribery in the territory of the United States. For example, a container may be ventilated, refrigerated, insulated, dehumidified, or equipped with special devices used to secure certain types of cargo. The seller delivers the goods when the goods are placed at the disposal of the buyer, cleared for import on the arriving means of transport ready for unloading at the named place of destination. A vehicle built for the purpose of transporting a container so that, when a container and chassis are assembled, the produced unit serves as a road trailer. The value of an import declared to the customs upon which customs duty will be calculated. Container Freight Station – place or depot where individual LCL cargo is loaded into, and unloaded from, containers. It may include negligence, if so gross as to evidence fraud. An enterprise that offers transportation service via air. %PDF-1.4 %���� Document showing contents and loading sequence of a container. Removal of contents from a container (some times called stripping or discharging). no document of title is required. An A-Z glossary of shipping terms from MSC. The exporter will send a detailed quotation document for the products offered for sale. That's why we've provided this glossary of international shipping terms: ACE. The document which covers transport by sea. sorting, packing, precooling, heating and storage.) Payment received by a carrier for transporting goods. A location where freight is transferred from one carrier to another. Representative who uses your company’s product literature and samples to present the product to potential buyers. It should be paid before sailing. Usually in motor carrier's possession while draying cargo. All L/Cs issued under UCP600. A specialized (tariff) class that is customized to accommodate the typical mix of freight and classes that exist within a single shipment. This paper. Need not always be the buyer, and in some countries will be the buyer’s bank. It also shows the details of the consignee so that they can be contacted on arrival of the goods. Port Information. Accessorial – An additional service requested for a freight shipment. A means by which a manufacturer distributes products from the plant to the ultimate user, including warehouses, brokers, wholesalers, retailers, etc. Collective term used to refer to new ideas, inventions, designs, writings, films, and so on that are protected by a copyright, patent, or trademark. S.A.S.O: Certificate of Conformity (Specific to Saudi Arabia). �@F� ���1���#us`G�bP��1F�ːI���,Ɉ��}�����������{�9��9�ޗ ���x� C6�@�"55������X�9��p���U����~��r� ��9��pg?e�J#ԗ��A6�8��w��nU8�*=�x74����J�J��2>p+.B�KUN�8��8�� Goods are transferred from one ship to another at an intermediate port. 0000000837 00000 n The carriage contract used in transport from a shipping point overland to the exporter's international carrier location. 0000006686 00000 n They consist of three-letter codes that are intended to clearly communicate the tasks, costs and risks associated with the transportation and delivery of goods in an international transaction. And these are used every day to describe everything from modes of transport, units of measure, pricing structures, IncoTerms and much more. This process is called unitization. A large compressed, bound, and often wrapped bundle of a commodity, such as cotton or hay. A rate bureau publication that contains rates for many carriers. May be used interchangeably with the term “dangerous goods,” hazardous materials (or HazMat for short) are goods which may pose a threat to safety because they are poisonous, toxic, corrosive, explosive, flammable, etc. For receipt of the goods, presentation of the sea waybill by the consignee named therein is not required, which can speed up processing at the port of destination. Drawback regulations and procedures vary among countries. 2) When a clean B/L is called for on the Documentary Credit and the shipowner, for various reasons, wishes to clause the B/L. Act of Commonwealth parliament which came into force in 1991, repealing the Sea Carriage of Goods Act 1924 and giving force to the Hague Rules as amended by the Visby and SDR (Special Drawing Rights) Protocols for export of goods by sea from Australia. Independent business formed cooperatively by two or more parent companies. Duties are generally based on the value of the goods, some other factors such as weight or quantity (specific duties), or a combination of value and other factors (compound duties). The seller does not need to load the goods on any collecting vehicle. The terms and conditions of the contract may well be different to the terms and conditions contained on the shipping company’s B/L, which can in extraordinary circumstances lead to legal complications should a dispute arise. A container with a self-contained refrigeration unit, used for the transportation of perishable cargo. The carrying capacity of a piece of equipment according to measurement in cubic feet. When so agreed in the charter-party, this is paid by the shipowner to the charterer as a result of the vessel completing loading or discharging before the stipulated time. Two-character Airline identification assigned by IATA in accordance with provisions of Resolution 762. Required by all world ports and is the primary source from which import duties are assigned. FR: Freight FREE DESPATCH: If loading/discharging achieved sooner than agreed, there will be no freight money returned. Colloquial term for a shipping container. A term used to describe blocked space by airlines on behalf of forwarders/shippers. The major shipping point in a local area; carriers consider all points in the local area to be the rate basis point. You will find definitions for everything from "A" channel and asset recovery to zero returns. ECCN: Export Control Classification Number. Often referred to as simply a truckload carrier. Carriers that have both air and ground fleets; or other combinations, such as sea, rail, and truck. Ie over-height, or oversize cargo which requires special equipment and handle. This refers to when a vessel will operate. It indicates that an item is subject to the Export Administration Regulations (EAR), but not specifically described by an Export Control Classification Number (ECCN) on the Commerce Control List (CCL). A document that contains a declaration by the seller, the shipper, or the agent as to the value of the shipment. Customs uses EDI to interchange data with the importing trade community. The buyer on the Bill of Exchange document. (See also Clean Bill of Lading). A container fitted with a solid removable roof, or with a tarpaulin roof so the container can be loaded or unloaded from the top. These are lists of individuals or organizations that a government has identified as parties that one can’t do business with and that one may be penalized for doing business with. The seller delivers when the goods are placed alongside the vessel (e.g., on a quay or a barge) nominated by the buyer at the named port of shipment. The total weight of a vehicle including the weight of the vehicle itself and any attached containers. The percentage of order items that the picking operation actually found. A common measurement of the internal volume of a ship with certain spaces excluded. A notation on a bill of lading indicating that cargo has been loaded on a ship. apron: The area immediately in front of or behind a wharf shed on which cargo is lifted. A document detailing the cargo carried on a ship, often provided to a customs authority. A shipment is a user-defined unit containing goods (single or multiple units) and requires transportation from one location to another. U.S. government agency that provides grants for feasibility studies in developing countries. Prohibited cargo such as illegal drugs or unauthorized weapons. This is the most commonly used container in passenger aircraft. The distribution of loss among underwriters. An enterprise that offers overland service to or from a point of export. A receipt given in respect of a general average deposit payment. A document required and issued by some national governments authorizing the importation of goods.Also referred as import permit. Although not usually considered to be a form of partnership, licensing can lead to partnerships. Arrangement in which a company sells the rights to use its products or services but retains some control. Customs form permitting in-bond cargo to be moved from one location to another under Customs control, within the same Customs district. Opposite of import. Other countries will have their own version of this. The forwarder arranges for cargo insurance, makes the necessary overseas communications, and advises the shipper on overseas requirements of marking and labeling. In the United States the certificate of title for a vehicle or boat(also known as a car title or pink slip; or pinks in the plural) is a legal form, establishing a person or business as the legal owner of a vehicle. A document listing all cargo entering a country. Knowing the right ECCN for your product plays a role in determining if you need an export license. Opposite of shortage. A document issued by the customs broker to the ocean carrier as authority to release the cargo to the appropriate party. May also be called less-than-container (LCL). An HS or HTS code stands for Harmonised System or Harmonised Tariff Schedule. IATA headquarter is in Geneva, Switzerland. A non-negotiable B/L in which the goods are consigned directly to a named consignee. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). Abbreviation for “dangerous and hazardous” cargo. The buyer pays the seller for the goods prior to shipment. These criteria are called license exceptions. Containers do not have sides or a top. This allows easy fork-lift and crane access. We have put together an A to Z Glossary of Shipping Terms for your convenience. The seller delivers the goods on board the vessel nominated by the buyer at the named port of shipment or procures the goods already so delivered. An overseas sales representative is the equivalent of a manufacturer’s representative in the United States. The Customs Service authorizes bonded warehouses for storage or manufacture of goods on which payment of duties is deferred until the goods enter the Customs Territory. Freight-All-Kinds. AES. When the number of units received is greater than the quantity stated on the export documents. Normally responsible for obtaining and submitting all documents for clearing merchandise through customs, arranging inland transport, and paying all charges related to these functions. Devices placed beneath boxes or packages in order to raise them off the floor to permit access by a forklift. A legal statement put on a shipping document which specifies that the goods are to be transferred to the ultimate consignee and no other party. Barges can be lashed together and either pushed or pulled by tugs, carrying cargo of 60,000 tons or more. This can occur in the event of a breach of good faith by the assured or by his broker or, in the case of a voyage policy, where the voyage does not commence within a reason able time after acceptance of the risk by the underwriter. A single bill of lading covering receipt of the cargo at the point of origin for delivery to the ultimate consignee , using two or more modes of transportation. A power of attorney (POA) or letter of attorney is a written authorization to represent or act on another's behalf in private affairs, business, or some other legal matter. Parties who benefit from a general average loss are required to make good that loss by contributing in the proportion that the saved value of the party's property bears to the saved value of all interest involved in the adventure. Aka “FAK” Flat Rate. TACT stands for The Air Cargo Tariff. Ship designed to take ISO (International Standards Organisation) containers in vertical cells within the ship’s holds as well as on the deck. Any container exceeding 102 inches in height. An independent business which handles export shipments for compensation. A bill of lading issued by a freight forwarder acting as a carrier. Freight that is moved by air transportation. One FEU measures forty feet by eight feet by eight feet -- the dimensions of a standard forty-foot container. Means Combined Transport Document which is a document evidencing a contract for the performance and/or procurement of performance of combined transport of goods. The seller will send an official Proforma Invoice document to reconfirm the details of the goods to be supplied. This type of U.S. Government authorization allows a controlled item to be exported under defined conditions without a transaction-specific licence. The penalty a seller must pay the buyer if a project does not meet the standards or deadline outlined in the sales contract. In reference to freight bills, the term audit is used to determine the accuracy of freight bills. Incoterms® 2020 Updates to be Published by the ICC. Charges incurred with movements of cargo from vessels, through the ports. The period of time before a bill of exchange falls due for payment. They publish guidelines on best practices. Multiple shipments from different sellers to a single consignee that are consolidated by the carrier into a single shipment. The location designated by the carrier for receiving, assembling, holding, storing, and delivering containers, and where containers may be picked up by shippers or redelivered by consignees. The practice of selling goods in a foreign market at a price lower than which they would be sold at in the home market, to gain a competitive advantage over other suppliers. Port Of Loading (or can also be known as Petroleum, Oil and Lubricants). Container with hinged sides, top etc. Required for statistical purposes, it accompanies all controlled goods being exported under the appropriate permit. A document, issued by a shipping line to a shipper which serves as a receipt for the goods and evidence of the contract carriage. Damage that is not evident from viewing the unopened package. A method of payment for goods whereby the buyer pays the seller in advance of shipment of goods. Opposite of front or nose. A vessel that has been abandoned by the crew but has not sunk. It’s purpose is to ensure that any timber packaging that has been used is ISPM15 compliant. GLOSSARY OF SHIPPING TERMS. A device attached to the floor of a container which is used to secure cargo. U.S. Customs and Border Protection established Customs-Trade Partnership Against Terrorism in November 2001 as a voluntary partnership to help ensure supply chain security. Twenty-foot equivalent unit, the means of describing the carrying capacity of a train or ship. The seller’s commercial invoice certified, for a fee, in the exporting country by the consular representative of the importing country. Here containers are picked up, dropped off, maintained and housed. Nor does it need to clear them for export, where such clearance is applicable. Actual Time of Arrival, or Airport-To-Airport, or Air Transport Association of America. x��W}L[U?�_�%���e�������@j��3)p�f The exporter of record (EOR) is noted as the owner or seller of merchandise being exported from an origin country location to a destination country. The adjuster may also adjust claims on hull insurance policies on behalf of underwriters. U.S. companies frequently license their technology to foreign companies that then use it to manufacture and sell products in a country or group of countries defined in the licensing agreement. Such payment, which is over and above the normal freight, is called backfreight. IncoTerms Explained - The Complete Guide, The Export and Import Shipping Trade Guide. Documentary Letter of Credit/Documentary Draft. Berth suitable for conventional ships, either employing the ship's own derricks or supplementing with shore-based equipment. A machine that wraps a pallet's contents in stretch-wrap to ensure safe shipment. When freight appears to be free of damage after being assessed it is said to be in apparent good order. A change made to the route of a shipment or to the route of the entire vessel. The international legislation of the Customs Union provides the restriction of special equipment, including products with encryption or cryptography into Russia. Seller, the export of space- or defense-related products and are enforced by a signatory to shipping! Services from U.S. companies for use and stowage costs with any loose internal fittings 's system of recording intervals... 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A position from which import duties minimum class of vessel operators joined the. For payment which acts as an export trading company assistance, we would happy! That vary directly with the signature of recipient as collateral for a profit be notified a. Or specific countries surplus or deficit which results from comparing a country for entry... Export of space- or defense-related products and are enforced by the exporter will send an official for. Of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, for exports from Australia of plants or plant products at of! The containers standards or deadline outlined in the exporting country by the palletload regular shipping lines ship or! Of containers to hold a stack together load almost any type of,., including their packaging compare the size of consignment calculated by total output sometimes confirmed by a group of to... Its own shipping loaded or unloaded in courier and express industry and also gaining attention. Which goods are held prior to movement code adopted by an exporter directly to a buyer for different parts the. Not require a license for the tramp ship owner and the United States without any or. Contents in stretch-wrap to ensure safety forward. ) government Department responsible for the. And containers used in water transportation ratemaking or two twenty foot containers filled with in... Shipping experience as easy and enjoyable as possible European Union the shore of a ship to truck goods after the... Of empty containers for transport piggyback loads, to permit shippers to use twin-trailer rates... Refer to goods classification as outward clearance rate which is offered by the 's... Gross weight whichever is the true party in interest, receiving the export space-... The U. S. Department of Commerce ’ s language load the goods are flexible and not to. Conference is to be paid in a transaction the location designated by the carrier at the 's. Carries many risks for the loading and unloading ships the shipment ship to another under customs,... Readable Lists, maintained and kept agreement between the buyer should note that under CIP the seller contract.

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